Self-Esteem’s Relations to Empathy and Parenting

Violeta Pavlova Cone


The article is looking into theoretical and research relations between self-esteem, empathy and parenting. The empirical study was carried out among 199 undergraduate US students and measured empathy (Empathy Quotient and Interpersonal Reactivity Index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and perceived parenting (Parental Bonding Instrument). The results showed no direct relation between empathy and self-esteem, as measured by the instruments in this sample. The care dimension of the perceived parenting style of both parents predicted self-esteem levels. Future research is recommended to confirm findings and identify possible mediator between empathy and self-esteem.


self-esteem; empathy; perceived parenting style; undergraduate students; Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale; Empathy Quotient; Parental Bonding Instrument; Interpersonal Reactivity Index

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ISSN: 2193-7281
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