Gender Differences in Depression Symptoms: Findings From a Population Survey in Kosovo – A Country in Transition

Aliriza Arenliu, Kaltrina Kelmendi, Dashamir Berxulli


This paper focuses on gender differences in depression symptoms. It takes into consideration relevant contextual factors of a country in transition. This paper’s analyzed data was extracted from European Social Survey, Sixth Round (ESS-6). ESS uses strict probability samples of the resident national population, aged 15 or older, and living in private households. Females reported a significantly higher mean depression on average (M = 8.14; SD = 3.88) compared to males (M = 7.56; SD = 3.86) at t(1247) = 2.604, p ˂ .009. The average for depressive symptoms found in the Kosovar population was higher than the averages reported in other European countries, but corresponded with those in Eastern European countries.


gender differences; depression symptoms; transition; Kosovo

Full Text:



Creative Commons License
ISSN: 2193-7281
PsychOpen Logo