Rumination and Mental Health in Emerging Adulthood

Eva Papazova, Anna Alexandrova-Karamanova


The study investigated the relationships between the dimensions of emerging adulthood and self-esteem, depression and anxiety, as well as the mediating effect of reflection processes between them. Two hundred and two subjects, aged 17-30 years, participated in the study. The methods used included Inventory for the Study of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA), Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale (RSEI), Short Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiological Studies (CES-D 10), and Revised Checklist for Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (Symptom Checklist 90 - R). Results showed that women had higher levels of depression, rumination and reflection compared to men. Significant low to moderate correlations were revealed between Identity exploration as a dimension of emerging adulthood, rumination and reflection, and depression. Experimentation / opportunities correlated with reflection, and Negativity / instability with rumination, depression and anxiety. Identity exploration, Negativity / Instability and Focusing on yourself were significant predictors of depression, and significant predictors of anxiety in emerging adulthood were Negativity/Instability and Experimentation/ opportunities. Rumination had significant indirect effects on self-esteem, depression and anxiety, with significant independent predictors the dimensions Identity exploration, Negativity/ Instability (except for anxiety) and Feeling "in between".


developmental features; reflection; rumination; emerging adulthood; self-esteem; depression; anxiety

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ISSN: 2193-7281
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